Till startsida
University of Gothenburg
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Roberto Toro is interested in the development and evolution of the brain, which he studies through mathematical modelling and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). He has developed computational models to describe the global organisation of the sulcal anatomy of the human brain, and to simulate the gyrification of the cerebral cortex. His aim is to apply this theoretical framework to the analysis of the neuranatomical data. Currently, he is working towards developing a description of the neuroanatomical variability of the normal human brain related to the genetic variability, as captured by high-throughput whole-genome genotyping. This description should allow us to better understand the neuroanatomical changes associated with different neurological disorders, and he is especially interested in the neuroanatomical changes associated with autism spectrum disorders.



Cameron Craddock, R., Margulies, D.S., Bellec, P., Nolan Nichols, B., Alcauter, S., A Barrios, F., ... Xu, T. (2016). Brainhack: a collaborative workshop for the open neuroscience community. GigaScience, 5, 16.

Guadalupe, T., Mathias, S.R., vanErp, T.G., Whelan, C.D., Zwiers, M.P., Abe, Y., ... Francks, C. (2016). Human subcortical brain asymmetries in 15,847 people worldwide reveal effects of age and sex. Brain Imaging and Behavior, (Epub ahead of print).

Heuer, K., Ghosh, S.S., Robinson Sterling, A., & Toro, R. (2016). Open Neuroimaging Laboratory. Research Ideas and Outcomes, 2, e9113.


Allely, C.S., Hadjikhani, N., Toro, R., & Gillberg, C. (2015). Neuropsychiatry. In: A.W.Toga (red)., Brain Mapping: An Encyclopedic Reference. Elsevier, Oxford.

Cury, C., Toro, R., Cohen, F., Fischer, C., Mhaya, A., Samper-González, J., ... IMAGEN Consortium. (2015). Incomplete Hippocampal Inversion: A Comprehensive MRI Study of Over 2000 Subjects. Frontiers in Neuroanatomy, 9, 160.

Desrivières, S., Lourdusamy, A., Tao, C., Toro, R., Jia, T., Loth, E., ... Schumann, G. (2015). Single nucleotide polymorphism in the neuroplastin locus associates with cortical thickness and intellectual ability in adolescents. Molecular Psychiatry, 20, 263-274.

Hibar, D.P., Stein, J.L., Renteria, M.E., Arias-Vasquez, A., Desrivières, S., Jahanshad N., ... Medland, S.E. (2015). Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures. Nature, 520, 224-229.

Lefebvre, A., Beggiato, A., Bourgeron, T., & Toro, R. (2015). Neuroanatomical Diversity of Corpus Callosum and Brain Volume in Autism: Meta-analysis, Analysis of the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange Project, and Simulation. Biological Psychiatry, 78, 126-134.

Maruani, A., Huguet, G., Beggiato, A., ElMaleh, M., Toro, R., Leblond, C.S., ... Delorme, R. (2015). 11q24.2-25 micro-rearrangements in autism spectrum disorders: Relation to brain structures. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 167, 3019-3030.

Thompson, P.M., Andreassen, O.A., Arias-Vasquez, A., Bearden, C.E., Boedhoe, P.S., Brouwer, R.M., ... ENIGMAN Consortium. (2015). ENIGMA and the individual: Predicting factors that affect the brain in 35 countries worldwide. NeuroImage, (Epub ahead of print).

Toro, R., Poline, J.B., Huguet, G., Loth, E., Frouin, V., Banaschewski, T., ... Bourgeron, T. (2015). Genomic architecture of human neuroanatomical diversity. Molecular Psychiatry, 20, 1011-1016.


Bölte, S., Willfors, C., Berggren, S., Norberg, J., Poltrago, L., Mevel, K., … Lichtenstein, P. (2014). The Roots of Autism and ADHD Twin Study in Sweden (RATSS). Twin Research and Human Genetics, 17, 164-176.

Dickie, E.W., Tahmasebi, A., French, L., Kovacevic, N., Banaschewski, T., Barker, G.J. … IMAGEN consortium. (2014). Global genetic variations predict brain response to faces. PLoS Genetics, 10, e1004523.

Germanaud, D., Lefèvre, J., Fischer, C., Bintner, M., Curie, A., des Portes, V., ... Hertz-Pannier, L. (2014). Simplified gyral pattern in severe developmental microcephalies? New insights from allometric modeling for spatial and spectral analysis of gyrification. NeuroImage, 102, 317-331.

Leblond, C. S., Nava, C., Polge, A., Gauthier, J., Huguet, G., Lumbroso, S., . . . Bourgeron, T. (2014). Meta-analysis of SHANK Mutations in Autism Spectrum Disorders: a gradient of severity in cognitive impairments. PLoS Genetics, 10, e1004580.

Thompson, P.M., Stein, J.L., Medland, S.E., Hibar, D.P., Vasquez, A.A., Renteria, M.E., … Saguenay Youth Study (SYS) Group. (2014). The ENIGMA Consortium: large-scale collaborative analyses of neuroimaging and genetic data. Brain Imaging and Behavior, 8, 153-182.


Delorme, R., Ey, E., Toro, R., Leboyer, M., Gillberg, C., & Bourgeron, T. (2013). Progress toward treatments for synaptic defects in autism. Nature Medicine, 19, 685-694.

Easton, A.C., Lourdusamy, A., Loth, E., Toro, R., Giese, K.P., Kornhuber, J., … Schumann, G. (2013). CAMK2A polymorphisms predict working memory performance in humans. Molecular Psychiatry, 18, 850-852.

Kafouri, S., Kramer, M., Leonard, G., Perron, M., Pike, B., Richer, L., .... Paus, T. (2013). Breastfeeding and brain structure in adolescence. International Journal of Epidemiology, 42, 150-159.

Mesmoudi, S., Perlbarg, V., Rudrauf, D., Messe, A., Pinsard, B., Hasboun, D., ... Burnod, Y. (2013). Resting state networks' corticotopy: the dual intertwined rings architecture. PloS One, 24, e67444.


Germanaud, D., Lèfevre, J., Toro, R., Fischer, C., Dubois, J., Hertz-Pannier, L., & Mangin, J.F. (2012). Larger is twistier: spectral analysis of gyrification (SPANGY) applied to adult brain size polymorphism. NeuroImage, 63, 1257-1272.

Kelly, C., Toro, R., Di Martino, A., Cox, C.L., Bellec, P., Castellanos, F.X., & Milham, M.P. (2012). A convergent functional architecture of the insula emerges across imaging modalities. NeuroImage, 61, 1129-1142.

Leblond, C.S., Heinrich, J., Delorme, R., Proepper, C., Betancur, C., Huguet, G., … Bourgeron, T. (2012). Genetic and functional analyses of SHANK2 mutations suggest a multiple hit model of autism spectrum disorders. PLoS Genetics, 8, e1002521.

Paus, T., Bernard, M., Chakravarty, M.M., Davey Smith, G., Gillis, J., Lourdusamy, A., … Pausova, Z. (2012). KCTD8 gene and brain growth in adverse intrauterine environment: a genome-wide association study. Cerebral Cortex, 22, 2634-2642.

Schmeisser, M.J., Ey, E., Wegener, S., Bockmann, J., Stempel, A.V., Kuebler, A., … Boeckers, T.M. (2012). Autistic-like behaviours and hyperactivity in mice lacking ProSAP1/Shank2. Nature, 486, 256-260.

Stein, J.L., Medland, S.E., Vasquez, A.A., Hibar, D.P., Senstad, R.E., Winkler, A.M., …Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis Consortium. (2012). Identification of common variants associated with human hippocampal and intracranial volumes. Nature Genetics, 44, 552-561.

Toro, R. (2012). On the possible shapes of the brain. Evolutionary Biology, 39, 600–612.


Chaste, P., Clement, N., Botros, H.G., Guillaume, J.L., Konyukh, M., Pagan, C., … Bourgeron, T. (2011). Genetic variations of the melatonin pathway in patients with attention‐deficit and hyperactivity disorders. Journal of Pineal Research, 51, 394-399.

Konyukh, M., Delorme, R., Chaste, P., Leblond, C., Lemière, N., Nygren, G., … Bourgeron, T. (2011). Variations of the candidate SEZ6L2 gene on Chromosome 16p11.2 in patients with autism spectrum disorders and in human populations. PLoS One, 6, e17289.


Toro, R., Konyukh, M., Delorme, R., Leblond, C., Chaste, P., Fauchereau, F., … Bourgeron, T. (2010). Key role for gene dosage and synaptic homeostasis in autism spectrum disorders. Trends in Genetics, 26, 363-372.

Batty, M.J., Liddle, E.B., Pitiot, A., Toro, R., Groom, M.J., Scerif, G., … Hollis, C. (2010). Cortical gray matter in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a structural magnetic resonance imaging study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 49, 229-238.

Lotfipour, S., Leonard, G., Perron, M., Pike, B., Richer, L., Séguin, J.R., … Paus, T. (2010). Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking interacts with a polymorphism in the alpha6 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene to influence drug use and striatum volume in adolescence. Molecular Psychiatry, 15, 6-8.

Raznahan, A., Toro, R., Daly, E., Robertson, D., Murphy, C., Deeley, Q., … Murphy, D.G. (2010.) Cortical anatomy in autism spectrum disorder: an in vivo MRI study on the effect of age. Cerebral Cortex, 20, 1332-1340.


Lotfipour, S., Ferguson, E., Leonard, G., Perron, M., Pike, B., Richer, L., … Paus, T. (2009). Orbitofrontal cortex and drug use during adolescence: role of prenatal exposure to maternal smoking and BDNF genotype. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66, 1244-1252.

Paus, T., & Toro, R. (2009). Could Sex Differences in White Matter be Explained by g ratio. Frontiers in Neuroanatomy, 3, 14.

Raznahan, A., Toro, R., Proitsi, P., Powell, J., Paus, T., Bolton, P., & Murphy, D.G.(2009). A functional polymorphism of the brain derived neurotrophic factor gene and cortical anatomy in autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders, 1, 215-223.

Smith, S.M., Fox, P.T., Miller, K.L., Glahn, D.C., Fox, P.M., Mackay, C.E., …Beckmann, C.F. (2009). Correspondence of the brain's functional architecture during activation and rest. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106, 13040-13045.

Toro, R., Chupin, M., Garnero, L., Leonard, G., Perron, M., Pike, B., … Paus, T. (2009). Brain volumes and Val66Met polymorphism of the BDNF gene: local or global effects? Brain Structure & Function, 213, 501-509.


Jbabdi, S., Bellec, P., Toro, R., Daunizeau, J., Pélégrini-Issac, M., & Benali, H. (2008). Accurate anisotropic fast marching for diffusion-based geodesic tractography. International Journal of Biomedical Imaging, 2008, 320195.

Paus, T., Toro, R., Leonard, G., Lerner, J.V., Lerner, R.M., Perron, M., … Steinberg, L. (2008). Morphological properties of the action-observation cortical network in adolescents with low and high resistance to peer influence. Social Neuroscience, 3, 303-316.

Toro, R., Fox, P.T., & Paus, T. (2008). Functional coactivation map of the human brain. Cerebral Cortex, 18, 2553-2559.

Toro, R., Perron, M., Pike, B., Richer, L., Veillette, S., Pausova, Z., & Paus, T. (2008). Brain size and folding of the human cerebral cortex. Cerebral Cortex, 18, 2352-2357.

Toro, R., Leonard, G., Lerner, J.V., Lerner, R.M., Perron, M., Pike, G.B., … Paus, T. (2008). Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking and the adolescent cerebral cortex. Neuropsychopharmacology, 33, 1019-1027.


Grosbras, M.H., Jansen, M., Leonard, G., McIntosh, A., Osswald, K., Poulsen, C., … Paus, T. (2007). Neural mechanisms of resistance to peer influence in early adolescence. Journal of Neuroscience, 27, 8040-8045.

Pausova, Z., Paus, T., Abrahamowicz, M., Almerigi, J., Arbour, N., Bernard, M., … Watkins, K. (2007). Genes, maternal smoking, and the offspring brain and body during adolescence: design of the Saguenay Youth Study. Human Brain Mapping 28, 502-518.


Toro, R., & Burnod, Y. (2005). A morphogenetic model for the development of cortical convolutions. Cerebral Cortex, 15, 1900-1913.


Toro, R., & Burnod, Y. (2003). Geometric atlas: modeling the cortex as an organized surface. NeuroImage, 20, 1468-1484.









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Roberto Toro

Page Manager: Anna Spyrou|Last update: 10/25/2016

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